Here are the short notes of “Living Organism Classification” which will help you in your exams like SSC, Banking and other competitive examinations.

  • The scientific way of grouping, identifying and naming of living organisms on the basis of certain characteristics is called “Classification”.
  • There are two ways or systems of classification
    • Artificial System- Based on one or few characteristics of a group. It provides little information.
    • Natural System- Based on many characteristics. It conveys a lot of information.
  • Carolus Linnaeus is called the father of Taxonomy.
  • Taxonomy is the branch of biology that deals with naming and describing of organisms.
  • Carolus Linnaeus divided all living organisms into 2 kingdoms.
    • Plantae- The Plant Kingdom
    • Animalia– The Animal Kingdom
  • The chronological order of various units of Classifications is – species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom.
  • Whittaker arranged all organisms into 5 Kingdoms.
    • Monera
    • Protista
    • Fungi
    • Plantae
    • Animalia
  • The arrangement of the organisms was based on the following criteria-
    • Cell Structure of the Organisms.
    • Body Structure.
    • Mode of Nutrition.
  1. Monera- are microscopic, unicellular, and prokaryotic organisms. Ex- bacteria, blue-green algae.
  2. Protista- are unicellular and eukaryotic organisms. Ex- Euglena, Amoeba etc.
  3. Fungi- are multicellular, eukaryotic, and heterotrophic (non-green plants). Ex- mushrooms etc.
  4. Plantae are multicellular, eukaryotic, and autotrophic (green plants). Ex- red, brown and green algae, bryophytes, gymnosperms etc.
  5. Animalia- multicellular, eukaryotic, and heterotrophic. Ex- All Vertebrates and Invertebrates

Naming of Organisms

  • It helps in identifying and differentiating the organisms from each other.
  • The naming of an organism is called “Nomenclature”.
  • The current scientific method of naming was given by Carolus Linnaeus.
  • In binomial nomenclature, the name of an organism is composed of two Latin words-
    • Genus called generic name.
    • It refers to the name of species called specific name.

Note-

  • The 1st letter of the generic name is written in capital letters whereas the 1st letter of the specific name is written in small letters. Ex- Rana tigrina (Frog)
  • The scientific names are italicised in printing and underlined while writing.

 

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