The Branch of science which deals with the study of fluids at rest.

Pascal’s Law

  • It states that the pressure or intensity of pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is equal in all directions.
  • Let consider a fluid at rest in a closed container then a change in pressure at one point will be transmitted without loss to every point of fluid and to the walls of the container.

Hydro-static Law

  • The rate of increase of pressure in the vertical direction is equal to weight density of the fluid at that point at that point.

∫dp= ∫ρgdZ

Where p= pressure

Z= height from the surface

Pressure Measurement Terms

Absolute Pressure

  • Pressure measured with reference to absolute zero pressure.

Gauge Pressure

  • Pressure measured with reference to the atmospheric pressure.

Vacuum Pressure

  • The pressure which is below the atmospheric pressure.

Relationships between these different Pressures

Pabs = Pgauge + Patm

Pvacuum = Patm – Pabs


  • MANOMETERS- Simple and Differential

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